Varieties of Training Qualifications and Skills in Long-Term Care: A German, Japanese and UK Comparison
This article considers training and qualifications in the long-term care sector in Germany, Japan and the UK. Each country has similar challenges of coping with increasing demand and securing staff for quality and cost effective care. However, the three countries organise training and qualifications in very different ways. Taking the level of training and qualifications for formal care workers, there is a hierarchy, with Germany at the top, Japan in the middle and the UK at the bottom. However, if the composition of the workforce is taken into account, Germany has developed a dualistic structure with both highly and lowly trained and qualified workers; Japan has developed a relatively large proportion of moderately trained and qualified workers; and the UK workforce consists of a relatively large proportion of lowly trained and unqualified workers. Explanations and implications are considered.